REASONS FOR ADDING TO THE ESTABLISHING RELIGION AND FOR INVENTION OF HADITHS
6) FABRICATIONS UNDER PRESSURE
As we have already pointed out, at the beginning of the movement of the collection of hadiths, especially under the Omayyad caliphs, threats and torture were everyday occurrences. The following saying of Ez Zuhri, claimed to be the first collector of hadiths, is evidence of this: “We did not like to invent hadiths. But the administrators (the Omayyad caliphs and their men) forced us to do it.” In collections made under pressure, the hadiths selected were those that gratified the powers that supported the conceptions of administrators related to culture, traditions and history. A great many of them were used to conform and corroborate traditions. For instance, when reference was made to a particular act of the Prophet, they used the introductory phrase: “The Prophet said that…” or “The Prophet has ordered that…” All the inventions and semantic deviations were carried out under the command of the powers in conformity with the views and concepts they cherished. Interpolations made under pressure were not confined to the Omayyads and the Abbasids. These interpolations of fabricated hadiths were later transformed into fatwas and canonical jurisprudence under the pressure of caliphs and governors. Under the Ottomans, the caliphate was to pass from father to son, and fratricide for the welfare of the State came to be admitted within the framework of these fatwas and canonical jurisprudence. This attitude is an indication of the freedom that the powers in charge enjoyed in regard of the revealed religion. All these took place at the request of the Sheikhulislam, considered an imposing personality clothed with authority and paid by the government.